[0048-71.CM 02/26/96]

[NETWORK NOTE: This document was scanned and retyped to make it an ASCII file.
The Block format of a USG document was altered to just "text")


NUMBER NN8937 597, BY  RB1VSW, DATE 1/23/96

Note: This Document contains information affecting the national defense of the
United States within the meaning of the espionage laws. Title 18, U.S.C., Sec
793 and 794. The transmission or revelation of its contents in any manner to an
unauthorized person is prohibited by law.


This report contains unprocessed information. Plans and/or policies should not
be evolved or modified solely on the basis of this report.
1.  COUNTRY:  VS, CA MAU Province      8. REPORT NUMBER:  6 029 0048 71

2.  SUBJECT:  (U) VC/NVA Camp for ARVN 9. DATE OF REPORT:  16 Jan 71
              PW's and VC prisoners                  (handwritten-W28342)

                                       10.NO. OF PAGES:  21

3. ISC NUMBER: 723.610                 11.REFERENCES: DIRM:  1Q16, 6G1
               723.600                                SICR:  D-7CX-49018

                           11 Jan 71
                                       13. PREPARED BY:  PAUL COSTELLO
                                                         SP5, USA
7. SOURCE:  PW Interrogation           14. APPROVING AUTHORITY:  (SIGNED)
                                                      W.H. BEARDSLEY
                                                      LTC, USA
                                                      Dir, US Elm, CMIC

    (C) This report contains information concerning the prison camp of the
    CA MAU Party Committee to include location, identification, prisoner
    treatment, trials and execution of PWs, and general prisoner handling
    procedures followed at this camp. In addition, this report contains
    information concerning the identification of a Japanese newsman, a
    Cambodian monk, and a Chinese merchant who were detained at the camp.
    1. (C) Background Information:

        a. Name:  TA VINH CU (TAV, VINHX CUW), aka BA DUNG (BA, ZUNGX), CMIC

        b. Rank:  CPT (Regroupee)

        c. Position and Unit of Assignment:  Chief of Combat Section; CA MAU
        Province Unit, MR-3

    DIA                    1 cy
    DIRNSA                 1 cy
    SAC                    1 cy
    CINPAC                 1 cy
    CINPAC AF              2 cys
    CINCUSARPAC            2 cys
    COMUSMACTHAI           1 cy
    MACJ212-2              2 cys
    MACJ213-1              1 cy
    MACJ23                 1 cy
    MACJ231                1 cy



Page 2 of 21

        d.  DPOB: 6 Apr 27; LONG DIEN Village, GIA RAI District, BAC LIEU
Province, RVN

        e.  Parents' Names: Father, TA TAN TANH (TAV, TAASN TANHL), deceased;
Mother, HUYNH THI BA (HUYNHL, THIV BA), deceased

        f.  Circumstances of Capture.  After spending approximately two years
and seven months in a VC prison camp, Source was transferred to a new camp
(vic VQ9062).  On 22 May 70, only 13 days after Source arrived, the camp was
captured by 10 US Navy Seals and 20 ARVNs.  Source and 16 ARVN PWs were

        g.  Significant Activities:

                (1)  1935 to Jan 60.  Source attended school from 1935 to
1945, at which time he completed high school at CAN THO Provincial High
School.  Source joined the 1079th Co, CUU LONG Bn, Region 9, in Sep 45.  He
served as an enlisted man until May 51, at which time he was made political
officer of the 2d Plat, 1097th Co, 1096th Bn, Region 9.  In Jan 53, Source was
transferred to the 552n Company which took over control of GIA RAI District,
BAC LIEU Province, from the French in Aug 54.  In Dec 54, Source regrouped to
NVN.  In Feb 65, he was assigned to the staff section of the 94th Regt in
HANOI, where he worked as a coordinator between the NVA and the South
Vietnamese soldiers who regrouped to the north.  In Jan 58, Source went to
Officers Training School for 13 months. In Feb 59, he was assigned as
executive officer to the 9th Co, 2d Bn, 338th Bde, with the rank of senior
Lieutenant.  In Sep 59, he was appointed commanding officer but retained the
rank of senior lieutenant.  In Jan 60, Source was discharged from the army.

                (2)  Jan 60 to Nov 70.  After being discharged from the army
in 1960, Source attended a Polytech School, HANOI City, NVN, for three months.
After completion, he was given a job as an inspector of heavy equipment for
the Prime Ministry.  He inspected various factories in and around HANOI City.
In May 60, he was sent to PEKING, CHINA, for a month to inspect factories and
compare them with NVN factories.  In mid-Feb 62, Source was recalled to the
338th Bde as a senior lieutenant.  Source infiltrated on 10 Mar 62, as
executive officer of the 49th Infil Gp.  On 15 Jun 62, the 49th Gp arrived at
BA RA Mountain, TAY NINH Province, RVN, which was the location of R.  In Oct
62, Source became chief of staff of the U MINH Battalion.  In Apr 63, he
became chief of the combat section of RV-7.  From Jan 67 to Dec 67, Source
worked at t receiving station and refused a number of assignments at this
time.  In Feb 68, Source attended a meeting where he heard plans for the Tet
Offensive.  Source was given command of the 3d Battalion, RV-7, which had the
mission to attack the CA MAU Administration Building.  Because of his unit's
heavy casualties, Source refused to take any more assignments.  On 14 Jun 68,
Source was arrested by the VC and sent to a prison in the NAM CAN jungle.  He
remained in prison until Nov 70, when he was liberated.

Page 3 of 21

        h.  Additional References:  CMIC PW/Rallier Exploitation Guide; Map:
VIETNAM, Series L7014, Sheets 5926 I, 5926 II, Edition 1, dtd 1966, Scale

2.   (C)  PW Camp in CA MAU Province, RVN:

        a.  The following is in response to SICR D-7CX-49018 (Prisoner of War
Intelligence (U)):

          (1) Places of Confinement:

                (a) Location and Description of PW Camps:

                       1 The camp was only known as the prison camp of the CA
MAU Province Party Committee.

                       2 Location of the PW Camps:

                          a  The main camp was located at (vic VQ957672).  The
small camp which was captured by US and ARVN forces was located at (vic

                          b  Map Sheets 5926 I and 5926 II, Series L7014,
Edition 1, dtd 1966.

                          c  The main camp was located about 2.5 kilometers
west of NAM CAN City.

                       3  For a sketch of the main camp see page 21

                       4  Photography of the camp was not available.

                       5  The camp was built as a detention camp and served no
other function prior to this.

                       6  The camp held from 130 to 150 prisoners.

                       7  The camp was a permanent detention camp.

                       8  The main prison camp contained about 130 prisoners
at the time Source was transferred to the smaller camp in early Nov 70.  These
prisoners included one Chinese merchant, one Cambodian Buddhist Monk,
approximately 30 female prisoners (all, South Vietnamese), one Japanese
newsman, approximately 10 VC prisoners, and about 80 ARVN PWs.

                       9  Each one of the prisoners' quarters except the main
prisoners' quarters consisted of only one cell.  The main prisoner cell
contained about 80 prisoners in three rooms.  The special detention cell
contained approximately 10 prisoners.  The remaining PW buildings held about
25 convicted (sic) prisoners.  The two female prisoners' buildings contained
about 15 prisoners each.  All of the quarters were constructed in the same
manner.  The walls were made of saplings which were stuck in the ground.  The
spaces between these saplings allowed light and air to enter the room.  The

Page 4 of 21

were made of thatched banana leaves and the floors were earthen.  In the main
call all of the prisoners were shackled; but in the remainder of the cells,
the prisoners were not bound.

                       10  The women prisoners worked in the kitchens.  The
convicted (sic) prisoners were but on various work details in and outside the
camp.  The only threat to these prisoners when they left the camp was that if
they escaped the other prisoners would suffer.  In spite of this, however,
five prisoners escaped during 1969.  For this reason, work details, such as
woodcutting, which took prisoners outside of the camp, were discontinued.
None f the other prisoners were put on any work details.

                 (b)  Camp Accessibility:

                       1  There were Allied aircraft passing over the camp
area almost every day.  These aircraft included L-19 reconnaissance aircraft
and helicopters.

                       2  The main obstacle to identifying the detention area
from the air was the heavy canopy which covered the area.  Ground observation
was hindered by dense jungle vegetation which abounded around the camp.

                       3  Source knew of no warning system for air attacks.
If activity in the area were heavy or if an aircraft circled the camp, it was
considered that an attack was imminent.  In this case, protective measures
were taken.  While Source was in the camp no actual attack took place.

                       4  Source knew of no ground approach routes except by
sampan on the canal.

                       5  Source know of no enemy units which would reinforce
the guard unit in case of an attack.

                       6  Source could provide no information concerning the
employment of weapons by any reinforcing units.

                       7  The only route into the camp known by Source was the

                       8  Source did not see very much of the surrounding
area, but he stated that he did not think a helicopter could land close to it
because of the marshy ground and the thick jungle nearby.

                       9  There were no antiaircraft automatic weapon
positions in the camp.  Also, Source knew of no bunkers or trenches in the
camp.  The camp was surrounded by mines and booby traps.  On several
occasions, Source saw land mines, but he could give no information concerning
the types of booby traps other than that they included punji stakes.

Page 5 of 21

                      10  Source could only say that the vegetation around the
camp was very thick which made it very difficult to either enter or leave the
camp on foot.

                      11  The only security force in the area was the guard
unit at the camp.

                      12  Source could provide no information concerning the
prevailing winds in the area of the prison camp.

                      13  If the guards believed there would be an attack on
the camp, they removed the prisoners to areas surrounding the camp.  During
the time Source was at the camp, the guards performed this duty about 20 to 30
times.  The area to which the prisoners were moved was changed regularly so
that Source could not give a definite location.  Source did not know what
orders the guards had in case of a sudden attack.  Source said that the
prisoners all feared an air attack because they would be trapped in the cells
with no protection.

                (c) Camp Security:

                      1  The camp was surrounded by mines and booby traps in
order to prevent any attack on the camp from the outside.  There was also a
guard unit assigned to the camp to provide camp security.  Also, the prisoners
in the main prisoners' compound were shackled to prevent their escaping.

                      2   There were about 20 men in the regular guard unit of
the camp. Besides these men, there were also 10 female guards.  Often some of
the 18 cadre at the camp would stand guard when the members of the guard
detail were on some other mission outside of the camp, such as rice procuring.
Source did not believe that these missions were on any regular schedule.  They
went on food procuring missions when necessary.

                     3  During the daylight hours, there was only one guard on
duty.  He stood on the guard platform in the center of the camp.  This
location gave him a good view of the entire camp.  At night there were two
walking guards.  In addition to these two regular guards, there was also a
trustee guard in each of the prisoner's quarters.  There were three of these
guards in the main prisoners' quarters.  One was stationed in the middle, and
one was at each end.

                     4  The guards' quarters were on the east side of the
camp.  These quarters were within 30 meters of all the male prisoners'
quarters.  The female guards' quarters were at the opposite end of the main
prisoners' quarters within approximately 20 meters of both of the female
prisoners' quarters.

                     5  For details concerning guard posts and billets, see
the sketch on page 21

Page 6 of 21

                     6  The guard unit was equipped with six K-50 (sic)
submachineguns, 15 K-44 rifles, two Breno automatic rifles (sic), and three
Cont-12 pistols (sic).  (Interrogator's Note: The Brano automatic was a Czech
weapon. The Cont-12 was a French copy of an American 38 cal pistol.)

                     7  During the day, the guards were changed every two
hours starting at about 0700 to 1900.  At night, the guards were changed every

                     8  Source did not know of any pyrotechnics which were
available to the guard unit at the camp.

                     9  The guards had no biological or chemical weapons
available to them.

                    10  Only the prisoners in the main prisoners' quarters
were shackled at all times.  These chains were made of metal links about one
centimeter in diameter.  When the prisoners were evacuated to the outside of
the camp because of an imminent air strike, the prisoners were bound with

                    11  As far as Source knew, there was no communication
equipment at the camp.

                    12  Source did not see any radios while he was a prisoner
at the camp.

               (d)  Camp Staff:

                     1  The headquarters section of the camp contained five
men.  There were 20 men in the guard detachment.  Their interrogation section
contained four men, while the instruction section had only three members.  In
addition, the staff contained 10 female guards and three cooks or laborers.

                      2  Source was unable to provide much information on the
biographical data, nationality, and duties of all PW camp personnel.  The
staff was entirely South Vietnamese except for one NVA soldier who worked in
the interrogation section.

                      3  Key Personnel:

                         CO:  CHIN TO (CHINS, TO)l age 55, 1.60m 47kg, long
                         Adj:  NAM DAN (NEAM, DANS); age 53, 1.67m, 55kg, one
large eye and one small eye

                         Adj:  BAY QUANG (BAYR, QANG); age 42, 1.63m 43kg,
dark complexion

Page 7 of 21

                         Med Tech:  TU CHAN (TU, CHAANS); age 24, 1.60m, 45kg,
light complexion

                         CO Guard Section:  NAM DIEN (NAM, DIEEN); age 29,
1.58m, 55kg

                         CO Instruction Section:  HAI THIEP (HAI, THIEEPV);
age 50, 1.60m, 55kg, light complexion, bald

                         4  The camp personnel considered the prisoners as
criminals and treated them very poorly.

                         5  The camp had four one-man confinement cells.
These calls were pits covered by bamboo bars (1.80m x 1m x 1.50m).  These
cells were extremely damp and dirty.  Since the food ration of all of the
prisoners was constantly low, a cut in rations was not usually used as a
punishment.  While in the punishment cell, the prisoner received the same
ration as all other prisoners. The usual term in these cells was about three
to four months.  However, Source had spent eight months in one.  When a
prisoner confessed to the crimes of which he was accused, he could be
sentenced from three to 15 years in this prison; some men were executed.

                         6  Source could provide no information on the
off-duty activities of the cadre of the camp since they usually stayed in
another section of the camp, away from the prisoners.

                         7  During the time he was a prisoner at this camp,
Source did not see any Allied propaganda leaflets.

                         8  The camp staff had commercial radios, but Source
did not know to which broadcasts they listened.  Source had never heard any
propaganda broadcasts while at the camp.

                         9  Source only knew that the camp staff had
commercial radios. They might have had other communications equipment which
was kept in the area of the camp where Source was never permitted to go.

            (2) Allied PWs:

                (a) Identification:

                         1  The camp contained approximately 100 ARVN PWs, 30
South Vietnamese woman prisoners, three foreign national civilians, and 10 VC

                         2 PW Information:

                             PW Number 1:

Page 8 of 21

                             a  TRANG (TRANGS)

                             b  Aspirant: ARVN

                             c  Not applicable

                             d  Nationality:  South Vietnamese

                             e  Physical Description:

                                1  Height:  1.60m

                                2  Weight:  45kg

                                3  Color of Hair and Eyes:  Black; Brown

                                4  Race:  Mongoloid

                                5  Complexion:  Light

                                6  Hair:  Short

                                7  Nose:  Flat

                                8  Scars: None seen

                                9  Tatoos: None seen

                               10  Birthmarks: None seen

                               11  Build; Heavy

                               12  Age: 25

                               13 Glasses Worn; None

                     PW Number 2:

                             a  Name: SHAHASI

                             b  Rank and Branch of Service:  Civilian

                             c  Not Applicable

                             d  Nationality:  Japanese

                             e  Physical Description

                                1  Height:  1.60m

                                2  Weight:  45kg

Page 9 of 21

                                3  Color of Hair and Eyes:  Black; Brown

                                4  Race:  Mongoloid

                                5  Complexion: Light

                                6  Hair:  Thinning

                                7  Nose: Short

                                8  Tattoos: None seen

                                9  Scars: None seen

                               10  Birthmarks:  None seen

                               11  Build:  Medium

                               12  Age:  40 to 45

                               13  Glasses Worn:  None

                               14  Rings/watches:  None

                        PW Number 3:

                             a  Name: THACH XI XA PHAI

                             b  Rank and Branch of Service: Buddhist Monk,

                             c  Not Applicable

                             d  Nationality:  Cambodian

                             e  Physical Description:

                                1  Height:  1.45m

                                2  Weight:  35kg

                                3  Color of Hair and Eyes:  Black; Brown

                                4  Race:  Mongoloid

                                5  Complexion: Dark

                                6  Hair:  Very short as his head had once been

                                7  Nose:  Flat

                                8  Scars:  None seen

                                9  Tatoos:  None seen

Page 10 of 21

                               10  Birthmarks:  None seen

                               11  Build:  Light

                               12  Age:  40

                               13  Glasses Worn:  None

                               14  Rings/Watches:  None

                     PW Number 4:

                             a  Name:  CHAN HUE (CHAANS, HUEE)

                             b  Rank and Branch of Service:  Civilian merchant

                             c  Not Applicable

                             d  Nationality:  Chinese

                             e  Physical Description:

                                 1  Height:  1.50m

                                 2  Weight:  40kg

                                 3  Color of Hair and Eyes:  Black, Brown

                                 4  Race:  Mongoloid

                                 5  Complexion:  Dark

                                 6  Hair:  Long and straight

                                 7  Nose:  Flat

                                 8  Scars:  None seen

                                 9  Tattoos:  None seen

                                10  Birthmarks:  None seen

                                11  Build:  Medium

                                12  Age:  35 to 40

                                13  Glasses Worn:  None

                                14  Rings/watches:  None

                          3  The prisoners wore black pajamas.  All other
clothing was taken from the prisoners at the time they were admitted to the
camp.  Source had seen the Japanese newsman wearing civilian clothes, but he
had forgotten what they looked like.

Page 11 of 21

                          4  Since all military uniforms were taken from the
prisoners shortly after their arrival at the camp, Source was unable to
observe any military insignia.

                          5  No photographs of these prisoners were available
at the time of this interrogation.

                          6  The only prisoner among those described above who
was wounded was the ARVN Aspirant, TRANG.  At the time of his capture, he had
been shot in the left arm.  The arm was broken, and was only bandaged but
never properly set. This caused the bones to knit incorrectly, and the arm was
bent at an odd angle.  For this reason, he only had partial use of this arm.
There were other men in the camp who were also wounded, but Source could not
provide any specific information on them.  All of the prisoners in the camp
were extremely weak from lack of food.  They ate only a small bowl of rice
twice a day.  The rice was salted, but rarely was there ever fish mixed with
the rice.  On even rarer occasions, approximately six times a year, the
prisoners were given vegetables.  During 1969, Source estimated that six men
died of malnutrition in this camp.

                          7  The following is the background information which
Source was able to provide concerning the prisoners he was able to identify:

                             a  PW Number 1.  TRANG had just graduated from
officer training in SAIGON and had not yet been assigned to a unit.

                             b  PW Number 2.  SHAHASI was a newspaper
correspondent from TOKYO.  Prior to his capture, he had stayed at the Spring
Hotel in SAIGON. While on an assignment in the southern portion of the RVN, he
was taken prisoner.  Source knew that this man had traveled to many other
countries before he came to the RVN.  Source was not certain, but he believed
that this man was married.

                             c  PW Number 3.  This prisoner was a Cambodian
Buddhist Monk. Before he was captured, he had been a teacher.

                             d  PW Number 4.  This prisoner had been a
traveling medicine salesman before he was captured.  Source was not certain of
the marital status of this man.

                  8  The camp had four isolation cells which were used as
punishment cells.  During the time in which Source was confined in one of
these cells, the other cells were all occupied by other VC prisoners.  Source
knew of no others who were put in these isolation cells.  However, there was a
rule against speaking to the Japanese newsman, the Cambodian Monk, or the
Chinese merchant.  Source defied these rules by speaking to these man.  For
this reason, he was placed in a confinement cell.

                  9  Source knew that men had died during movement and
confinement, but he could not identify them.  In 1969, at least six men died
of malnutrition at the camp.  Another 30 men were executed for their crimes.
In 1970, Source did not know how many

Page 12 of 21

men died in the camp, but he believed that at least eight died of malnutrition
or other diseases.  He was not sure how many were executed, but he believed
that there were at least as many executed in 1970 as in 1969.

                  (b)  Capture Data:

                     1  The following is the capture data Source was able to
provide concerning the prisoners Source was able to identify:

                        a  PW Number 1.  TRANG was captured while he was on
leave at home after finishing officer training school in SAIGON

                        b  PW Number 2.  SHAHASI was covering a story in CA
MAU Province shortly after the Tet Offensive of 1968.  While in this province,
he was arrested by local guerrilla forces as being a spy for the CIA.

                        c  PW Number 3.  THACH XI XA PHAI was a Buddhist Monk
who taught in the KHANH BINH Village, SONG DOC District, CA MAU Province.  In
his classes, he often encouraged the men to join the ARVN forces and to avoid
the VC.  For this reason, he was arrested by local security forces in May 69.

                        d  PW Number 4.  This man was a traveling medicine
salesman who was arrested as being a spy by local security forces in the XOM
CAY DUOC area, RACH GIA Province (VC), in Sep 68.

                   (2)  Source could provide no information concerning the
number of capturing troops since he was not present at the capture site.

                   (3)  Source could provide no information concerning the
extent of search for other possible prisoners since he did not take part in
the capture.

                   (4)  Source could provide no information concerning any
attempts by PWs or prisoners to avoid capture or to escape since he was not
present at the capture site.

                   (5)  Handling of Prisoners:

                        a  All of the prisoners were thoroughly searched
before they were transported to the prison camp.

                        b  Usually clothing was not taken from the prisoners
until they reached the prison camp.  In most cases, only the prisoners' boots
were taken at the capture site to prevent any attempts to escape.  By the time
they reached the prison camp, the prisoners had no personal possessions since
they were either taken by guards or given to the guards as bribes for special
favors.  When they reached the camp, prisoners were stripped of their civilian

Page 13 of 21

or military clothing and were given VC black pajamas. Source did not know what
was done with this clothing when it was taken away from the prisoners.

                        c  Source was not certain where the military equipment
of the prisoners was sent, but he had heard that it was evacuated to the Rear
Service Unit of the CA MAU Province Unit.  This unit distributed the weapons
and equipment to the local guerrilla forces.

                         d  Usually two guards accompanied the prisoner.  Only
one of these guards carried a carbine.  The prisoner usually had his hands
tied in front of him.  One end of the rope that bound him was held by one of
the two guards.  The prisoners were not always blindfolded, but it was not an
infrequent practice to do so.  Source noticed no pattern in who was
blindfolded and who was not.  The blindfold and rope were removed soon after
the prisoners reached the prison camp.

                   (6)  Source did not know of any particular cases of
mistreatment of prisoners before they reached the camp.  While at the camp, it
was not unusual for prisoners to be interrogated for several days at a time;
there was never enough food given to the prisoners.  At the camp also, the
prisoners were rarely allowed out of their cells and were given no exercise.
For these reasons, all of the prisoners were weak and were susceptible to
disease. Source knew of no instances in which prisoners were beaten or
otherwise physically mistreated by the staff of the camp.

                   7  The only wounded PW about whom Source was able to give
information was TRANG.  He had been shot at time of capture and suffered a
broken arm.  The arm was never properly set and, therefore, healed crookedly.
Source did say that the wound had at least been bandaged.

                   8  Source could provide no information concerning the
movement of PWs or prisoners too seriously injured or sick to a confinement

                   9  The camp had a medical technician on the staff who was
responsible for the health care of the prisoners.  There was very little
medicine available to the prisoners.  They were given small amounts of Vitamin
C and B-1, quinine, and aspirin.  Some of the common diseases among the
prisoners were malaria, beriberi, and diarrhea.  Because of the inadequate
food and poor living conditions, almost every prisoner was suffering from some
type of disease.  The medical technician at the camp did not have adequate
supplies to treat all of the sic.

                  10  No photographs were taken of any of the prisoners n the
camp while Source was there.

              (c) Movement of PWs to a Detention Camp:

Page 14 of 21

                   1  Prisoners were brought to the camp on a small sampan.
The sampan did not have a motor and traveled on the canal which passed close
to the camp.  Prisoners were never brought in by any other route because the
swampy terrain made other means of traffic very difficult.

                   2  The prisoner's hands were bound in front of him, and one
end of the cord was held by one of the two men guarding him.  Often the
prisoner was blindfolded, but this was not always the case.  The prisoner's
shoes or boots were usually taken from him in order to make it easier for him
to be guarded.

                   3  All of the prisoners were treated equally with no regard
to rank or race.

                   4  Two guards accompanied a prisoner to the prison camp;
only one of the two guards carried a weapon.  The same two men from the guard
detail had the job of picking up prisoners.  Source had no idea how these men
knew when and where to pick up the prisoners.  Only these two men guarded the
prisoners so that they had to rotate shifts in order to sleep at night.

                   5  Source had no idea of how long it took the prisoners to
reach the prison camp since the time factor was influenced by where the
prisoner was captured, how many other prisoners were captured in other areas,
what unit captured him, and also the time of the day and season of the year in
which he was captured.

                   6  Source did know of cases in which prisoners were
harassed by the guards from the camp.  In some cases, prisoners were also
beaten and mistreated by the capturing unit before the camp guards arrived.
Source did not know of any cases of prisoners being mistreated by the local

                   7  If prisoners were exhibited in the villages, this was
done before the guards from the camp arrived.  A guard told Source that they
were ordered to keep the local civilians away from the prisoners.  The guard
said that this was done because the civilians might kill the prisoners because
of their crimes (sic) against the people.  However, Source did not believe
that this was the true reason.

                   8  Source did not know of any prisoners who were
interviewed or photographed in transit.  Some of the prisoners were questioned
by the capturing units before they were picked up by the camp guards.  Source
said that he did not know about what they were questioned.

                   9  Source could provide no information concerning the
direction of travel, time and date of sighting, point of departure and
destination of PWs.

                (d)  In Camp:

Page 15 of 21

                   1  At the camp, all clothing was taken from the prisoners,
and they were issued VC black pajamas.  Bu they time they reached the camp,
most prisoners had lost or given away most of their personal belongings.
Those possessions that they still had at this time were taken from them.
Nothing other than the clothing was issued to the prisoners.

                   2  Prisoners who were ARVN PWs were usually first sent to
the main prisoners' quarters.  Here they were placed in one of three large
rooms, each of which held about 30 PWs.  Foreign prisoners and VC prisoners
were sent to a separate prisoners' quarters building which held 25 people and
was built very similar to the main prisoners' compound except that it only had
one room.  The female prisoners were sent to one of two other prisoners'
quarters, each of which held about 15 prisoners.  These were then covered with
a thatched roof, and the floors were left earthen.

                   3  The female prisoners were separated from the male
prisoners. Also the VC and foreign national prisoners were separated from the
ARVN PWs. In addition, the VC prisoners were not allowed to speak with the
foreign national prisoners even though they lived in the same call.  The only
other distinction was that if a man had already confessed to the crimes of
which he was accused, and had been sentenced to prison, he was placed in
another cell, apart from the remaining prisoners.

                   4  The prisoners lived in the quarters which were described
above. In some cases, such as Source's, a prisoner was transferred from one
cell to another.  The camp also had four tiger cage type solitary cells which
were used as punishment cells.

                   5  The prisoners were only restrained in the main
prisoners' quarters.  In all other calls, the prisoners had the freedom of the
cell.  The only time these bonds were loosened was once in the morning when
one man was allowed to empty the pots which served as the prisoners' latrines.
The prisoners were also untied when there was a danger of an air strike, at
which time the guards moved them to a safe area.  Once a week prisoners were
taken out in groups of 10 to bathe in a cistern built inside the camp.  This
water was salt water and did not get the prisoners clean.  Also, all prisoners
were suffering from body sores caused by the salt water and the lack of fresh
water for bathing.

                   6  The daily routine at the camp was not rigid and was
influenced by a great many factors, such as Allied activity in the area, or
the weather. The usual schedule, however, was the following:

              0530      Reveille and personal hygiene

              0600      Breakfast

              0700      Make chopsticks and other handicrafts in the cells

Page 16 of 21

              1600      Rest

              1900      Self-criticism

              2000      Evening meal

              2100      Sleep

                   7  The only prisoners who were put on work details were
those that were convicted of a crime.  These men were not heavily guarded when
they were sent out on wood cutting details.  The only threat was that if they
escaped, the remaining prisoners would suffer.  The usual punishment for the
remaining prisoners was to cut the already inadequate rations.  This was the
only case in which rations were reduced.  Due to a large number of escapes in
spite of this threat, work details were eliminated outside of the camp.

                   8  During the time he was in the camp, Source did not meet
any of the local civilians.  A guard once told him that the local people would
kill the prisoners because of their crimes against the people, but Source did
not believe this.

                   9  Prisoners were fed rice and salt twice a day.  About
once a week there was some fish mixed in with the rice.  Both of the meals
were very small, and all of the prisoners were weak because of malnutrition.
Source had no way of knowing how well the cadre ate but assumed that they ate
better than the prisoners since they were not suffering from malnutrition.
During 1969, about five men in the camp died of malnutrition.  A larger number
died of diseases which they caught because of their weak condition.

                  10  Source knew of no photographs or movies which were taken
of the PWs.

               (e)  Interrogation of PWs:

                   1  The interrogation rooms were built about 50 meters from
the rest of the camp.  Since Source was never interrogated himself, he did not
know what the interrogation was like.  From his conversations with other
prisoners, Source believed that the interrogators were more interested in
having the prisoner confess to a crime than in giving strategic or tactical

                   2  Interrogation usually began about three days after the
prisoner arrived at the camp.

                   3  When a prisoner had been taken for interrogation, he
might have been gone for as long as six days, during which he was constantly
interrogated.  In other cases, the interrogations was split into two four-hour
sessions every day for several weeks.  Source did not know why the two
different methods were used.

Page 17 of 21

                   4  Since all of the prisoners spoke Vietnamese, the
interrogators were able to speak directly with the prisoners.

                   5  All the interrogators were VC except one who was North

                   6  Source did not believe that the interrogators sought
information but only wished to get the prisoners to confess their guilt to
crimes of which they were accused.

                   7  Source could provide no information concerning specific
questions asked during interrogations.

                (f)  Prisoner Mail Privileges:

                   1  The only letters that all of the prisoners were allowed
to receive and send were those favorable to the VC cause.  In order for the
letter to be sent, the letter had to say that the camp was a good place to
live and that the staff was helping the prisoner to correct his distorted

                   2  Prisoners at this camp were never forced to write
letters as far as Source knew.  Source believed that is was possible that part
of the interrogation procedure could have included the writing of letters of
confession to relatives, but he was not certain of this.  The reason he
thought this was because of rumors and stories that he heard in the camp.

                   3  All letters that the prisoners either received or sent
were opened by the camp staff.  Staff told the prisoners that they did this to
protect them from wrong thoughts, but Source believed that they wanted to
prevent the prisoners from learning the truth about what was happening outside
the camp.  The staff also told the prisoners that they read the letters that
they wrote so that they would not write any wrong ideas to their relatives.

                   4  On holidays such as Tet, prisoners were allowed to
receive packages.  The packages like all letters were opened and examined
before the prisoners received them.  The number of packages was very few. On a
holiday, only about one or two percent of the prisoners received packages.
Source did not know if this was because few packages were received or if the
staff did not distribute all of the packages that they received.

                   5  Source did not know if the letters were actually sent
after they had been censored or what was done to them if they were not sent.
Source said that many of the prisoners did not believe that the letters were
sent since they never received replies from their relatives.

                   6  Prisoners were only allowed to receive letters, which
could have encouraged the prisoners to cooperate with ***** rules, from their
families. Prisoners were only allowed to

Page 18 of 21

letters which praised the camp and the staff and encouraged their families to
remain true to the VC cause.

                   7  All letters and packages were opened before entering or
leaving the camp.  The staff admitted that mail was opened for the good of the

                   8  No mail entered or left the camp without being examined
by the camp staff.

                (g)  Indoctrination:

                   1  Every day one of the instructors at the camp would visit
and speak with all of the prisoners.  These men usually visited in the evening
before the self-criticism session.  One of the instructors was always present
during the self-criticism sessions.

                   2  Most indoctrination took place in the prisoners'
quarters. Source, however, was taken to the instruction building on several
occasions to discuss politics with the instructors.  Source did not know if
all prisoners were given these private talks.

                   3  Since the majority of the indoctrination took place at
the prisoners' quarters, there was no prescribed segregation of prisoners
while they were being indoctrinated.  Indoctrination took place as long as a
man was a prisoner.

                   4  The amount of indoctrination varied from day to day.
Usually the self-criticism session lasted an hour.  Occasionally, the
instructor arrived earlier in order to talk with a particular individual
depending on the preference of the instructor.  Source was taken to the
instructors' building at least 20 times while he was a prisoner.  these
sessions usually lasted about two hours.  Source knew that some other
prisoners were also taken to the indoctrination room, but he could not say for
sure that all prisoners were taken there.

                   5  All indoctrinators at the camp were VC personnel.

                   6  No Allied personnel were used as indoctrinators.

                   7  All of the indoctrinators talked to all of the prisoners
at some time.  There was no assignment of a specific indoctrinator to each

                   8  To the best of Source's knowledge, racial problems were
not used as a lever in indoctrination.

                   9  The main topics of discussion were concerned with the
validity of the VC cause, the benefits of Communism, and the inevitability of
a VC victory.  For example, Source was told during one of the sessions in the
indoctrination room that CA MAU Province

Page 19 of 21

would be liberated before the end of 1970.  Also, all the prisoners were
required to give a self-criticism every day of how they had deviated from the
camp policies and Communist doctrine.  All propaganda was in verbal form, and
Source saw no movies or leaflets while he was in the camp.

                  10  The prison was never visited by newsmen or photographers
while Source was a prisoner.

                  11  Source saw no movies while he was a prisoner in this

                  12  If a man signed a confession during interrogation, there
was a trial held in the prison year.  The trial was presided over by just one
man, usually the commanding officer of the camp, who read the confession and
then pronounced the sentence.  Prison terms from three to 15 years were
common. The death sentence was also given to some prisoners.  During 1969,
about 30 prisoners were executed.  In 1970, at least another 25 were given
this sentence.  Not only ARVN PWs but also VC prisoners were executed.  The
executions took place somewhere outside of the camp where the other prisoners
could not see them performed.  The prisoners who were executed were usually
accused of spying.  Source did not know what determined whether a prisoner
would be given a prison term or the or the death sentence, since often two men
with the same crime would get different sentences.

               (h)  Medical Care and Health:

                   1  When a prisoner was sick, he was treated by the medical
technician on the prison staff.  All treatment was performed in the prisoners'
quarters.  The treatment was usually inadequate because of a lack of medicine
and because of the unsanitary living conditions of the prisoners.

                   2  The only medical personnel who treated sick prisoners
was the medical technician.

                   3  Some of the most common diseases suffered by the
prisoners were beriberi, diarrhea, and malaria.  Source could not estimate how
many prisoners died of disease in the camp.  Besides these diseases, there
were also men who died of malnutrition.  In many cases, it was difficult to
determine whether a man died of malnutrition or of some disease which he
contracted because of the weakness caused by the lack of food.

                   4  To Source's knowledge, the prisoners were never allowed
or permitted to give medical treatment to the camp staff.

                   5  Sick PWs remained in the prisoners' quarters with the
other prisoners.  The medical technician would treat the sick man in these
same quarters.

Page 20 of 21

                   6  Source did not know where the camp obtained the medical
supplies which were used by the medical technician.

                   7  The diet of the prisoners consisted of two small bowls
of rice and salt every day.  About once a week they received a small amount of
fish mixed with the rice.  There were very few vegetables in the prisoners'
diet. Source believed that the guards went hunting in order to get meat for
the cadre.  The prisoners never received any of the meat that resulted from
these hunting trips.

                   8  Sick prisoners had the same diet as the rest of the

                  9  Source did not see any signs of rabies while he was a

        (i)  Since this camp did not contain any US PWs, Source did not have
any information concerning this topic.

(U)  COMMENTS:  Source was very cooperative throughout the interrogation.
Source was administered the Cross Cultural IQ Test and scored Average (23).
This report partially satisfies the requirements of SICR D-7CX-49018.
Collection action continues.

Page 21 of 21

Sketch of the Prison Camp of the CA MAU Province Party Committee, as provided
by captive, TA VINH CU, CMIC 3298-70 (DOI: 14 Jun 68 to 9 Nov 70) (Not to

        [NETWORK NOTE: a copy of the 6.75" x 7" SKETCH OF THE PRISON CAMP
        is available - call or write using the file number 0048 71.]

1. Interrogation Rooms          9. Female guards' quarters
2. VC and Foreign National     10. Female prisoners' quarters
   Prisoners' Quarters         11. Prisoners' Kitchen
3. Main Prisoners' Quarters    12. Punishment cells
4. Staff Mess Hall             13. Guard tower
5. Interrogators' Quarters     14. Convicted prisoners' quarters
6. Headquarters                15. Instruction section and
7. Cadre Quarters                  instructors' quarters
8. Staff Kitchen               16. Guard quarters

[Distributed through the P.O.W. Network]